History of Egypt | Egypt History Timeline



The Nile Valley is the birthplace of one of the oldest and greatest civilizations the world has ever known. For nearly 3,000 uninterrupted years, Egypt’s kings and pharaohs ruled over a highly organized, cultured, and sophisticated state, when most of the world was still living in caves and hunting with clubs. You can learn more about the history of Egypt with us.


History of Egypt

the Rosetta Stone was the connection between us and Egyptian history it helped us to discover Egypt's history which is full of great events and great archaeological events that have not been discovered yet. the ancient Egyptian human inhabited the Nile River Valley from about 6000 Bc.

Prehistory (pre–3100 BC)

There is data from petroglyphs along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th BC, the culture of hunter-gatherers and fishermen was renewed by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes and/or overgrazing nearby 6000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River, where they formed a settled agricultural economy and a more centralized community.

 

Egypt History Timeline

By about 6000 BC, a Neolithic culture was rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badari culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.


Ancient Egypt (3100–332 BC)
the unified kingdom was founded by King Menes in 3150 B.C., resulting in a series of dynasties that dominated Egypt for consecutive 3 millennia. Egyptian culture flourished throughout this long amount and remained distinctively Egyptian in its faith, arts, language, and customs. the primary 2 ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the previous Kingdom amount (c. 2700–2200 BC), which made several pyramids, most notably the Third family line pyramid of Djoser and therefore the Fourth family line Giza Pyramids.

you can explore the archeologic sites of the ancient Egyptians through Luxor day tours. you can also cover it during Aswan day tours or even our 2 days tour to Luxor from Aswan there are a lot of Egypt day tours that go to Luxor from the various Egyptian cities like Hurgada day tours by land to Luxor or if you come for a leisurely holiday in Sharm you can take the plane for one day during Sharm El Sheikh excursions to explore all of the historical city.


The first intermediate period began in a time of political turmoil nearly 150 years ago. The stability of the government restored the prosperity of the country in the Middle Kingdom in 2040 BC and reached its climax during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat the Third. And with the entry into the second period of separation, with the arrival of the first foreign dynasty in Egypt, the Semitic Hexus kingdom. The Hyksos invaders occupied most of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and created a new capital at Alvarez. They were expelled by the Upper Egypt Force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and moved the capital from Memphis to Thebes.


The modern state (circa 1550 - 1070 BC) began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, indicating the rise of Egypt as a world power that expanded during its largest extension to an empire as far south as Tombs in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. This period was indicated for some of the most famous pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Tuthmosis the Third, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti and Tutankhamun, and Ramesses II. The first historically acclaimed expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism, although some consider Atenism a form of monotheism rather than monotheism. Repeated contacts with other countries brought new ideas to the new kingdom. The country was later invaded and occupied by the Libyans, the Libyans, and the Assyrians, but the indigenous Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country.


In 332 BC, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered Egypt as he toppled the Achaemenids and established the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Kingdom, whose first ruler was one of Alexander's former generals, Ptolemy I Soter. The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final annexation by Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt's becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire.


Roman rule in Egyp (Ro­ma­no-By­zan­ti­ne Periodlasted from 30 BC to 641 AD, with a brief interlude of control by the Sasanian Empire between 619–629, known as Sasanian Egypt. After the Muslim conquest of Egypt, parts of Egypt became provinces of successive Caliphates and other Muslim dynasties: Rashidun Caliphate (632-661), Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), Abbasid Caliphate (750–935), Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171), Ayyubid Sultanate (1171–1260), and the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). In 1517, Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo, absorbing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire.


Egypt remained completely Ottoman until 1867, without French control from 1798 to 1801. Opening in 1867, Egypt became a self-supporting tributary country called Khedifa Misr. But, Khadift Egypt fell under British administration in 1882 in the wake of the Anglo-Egyptian War (Protectorate-Monarchy). After the end of the First World War and after the Egyptian revolution in 1919, the Kingdom of Egypt (Republicwas established. While the United Kingdom is a de jure independent state, it retains control over foreign affairs, defense, and other matters. The British occupation continued until 1954, with the approval of the Anglo-Egyptian 1954.

With the complete withdrawal of the British forces from the Suez Canal in 1956 AD, the modern Republic of Egypt was founded in 1953 AD, this was the first time in 2500 years that Egypt was completely independent and ruled by the original Egyptians. President Gamal Abdel Nasser (from 1956 to 1970) established the united Arab republic with Syria. its terms were the Six-Day War and the creation of the International Non-Aligned Movement. His successor President Anwar Sadat (president from 1970 to 1981) changed the course of Egypt, moving away from many political and economic principles of Nasiriyah, re-establishing a multi-party system, and launching the policy of economic openness. He led Egypt in the 1973 Yom Kippur War to restore the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War in 1967. This subsequently led to the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.

Recent Egyptian history has been dominated by events following nearly thirty years of rule by former president Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian revolution of 2011 deposed Mubarak and resulted in the first democratically elected president in Egyptian history, Unrest after the 2011 revolution and related disputes led to the 2013 Egyptian coup.

explore more about our history during many of our exceptional Egypt travel packages that also cover most of the history and we recommend you to experience Egypt Christmas tours to see the highlights of Cairo and also get excited and learn about t ancient Egyptian architecture through our Egypt Nile cruise tours and especially in April to enjoy the mild temperatures when you book Egypt Easter tours. you can also enjoy all Cairo attractions through one of our Cairo Day Tours. even if you are going to stop over in Cairo don't waste this opportunity to book one of our Cairo Day Tours From the Airport. to explore Cairo's amazing attractions that you can also discover through one of our interesting excursions such as Shore Excursions From Alexandria Port which gives you the chance to visit the Giza pyramids and the Egyptian museum, al-Azhar mosque, and all the historical and magnificent attractions located within Cairo.