It can be said that the Islamic conquest of Egypt was in the eighteenth year of migration, which is the year corresponding to 640 A.D. during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased with him - and the leader of the conqueror was the wily Arab companion Amr ibn al-As, may Allah be pleased with him, and he took the road to the Mediterranean coast, reached Al-Arish and conquered it without any significant resistance.
During the reign of the second rightly guided Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab, the Arab Muslim leader, Amr ibn al-As, conquered Egypt to become part of the Islamic Caliphate. The Islamic conquest of Egypt after Muslims conquered Palestine from the hands of the Romans in order to secure both conquests, the caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab didn't allow the Islamic armies to proceed in Africa. As for the leader Amr ibn al-As, he was fond of Egypt before adopting the Islamic faith, and after he defeated the Romans in the Battle of Ajnadeen, the caliph asked for permission to enter Egypt, which the Caliph initially refused. Soon after, Amr bin Al-Aas agreed and sent him supplies. Amr bin Al-Aas went to his army. Proceeding towards Egypt via the military land road, he passed by Sinai through Al-Arish and Al-Farma, then besieged and captured Babylon Castle, and Egypt was ruled at that time.
It can be said that the Islamic conquest of Egypt was in the eighteenth year of migration, which is the year corresponding to the year 640 A.D during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab – may Allah be pleased with him – and the leader of the conqueror was shrewd Arab companion Amr ibn al-As – may Allah be pleased with him – and he took the path to the Mediterranean coast, he reached Al-Arish and conquered it without any significant resistance, and when he reached the village of Al-Faramah at the beginning of the Egyptian border, the Islamic Army faced a Roman-Byzantine garrison and besieged it for a long time until it fell in 19 to migrate. The first beneficiaries of the Islamic conquest are the Copts in Egypt So they helped the Muslims in Egypt to open a lot, Muslims continued to crawl down to Alexandria, Vhasroha for four months and then forcibly Fd Amr Ibn al-her family left the people of edema and fell Muqawqis at the head of his people in exchange for tribute, and this was the year 20 A.H.
Some historians state that one of the main reasons for the success of the Islamic armies in defeating the Byzantines was the reception of Egyptian Christians to the Arabs as their saviors from the torture of the Romans. A supporter of this view is British historian Edward Gibbon in his book “History of the Fall of the Roman Empire” in 1782.
The other group of historians believes that the Egyptians resisted the Arabs and fought alongside the Byzantines. Among those who support this view are the Egyptian historian Taqi al-Din al-Maqrizi and the British historian Alfred Butler
The flowering of Islamic architecture is evident in the city of Al-Qata’ea and the Mosque of Ahmed Ibn Tulun, which was built on the approach of the Mosque of Amr Ibn Al-Aas with the addition of a fountain, minaret, pillars, decoration, and founding plate.
The Ayyubid era was also marked by the progress of architecture, and one of its most famous features is the construction of the Salah al-Din Citadel. This castle represents Islamic architecture from the Ayyubid state until the era of Muhammad Ali.
The most magnificent outdoor museum of Islamic art is called El-Moez Street. it was the main street through the city when it had built during the 11th century and mosques, Madrasas or schools, Sabils, mausoleums, and palaces were built here. The northerly part of the street (between Bab El-Fotouh and Al-Azhar Street) was newly renovated. This is one of the most graphic parts of Cairo. The Qala’un Complex hither is one of the most prominent in Cairo.
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