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History of Egypt | Egypt History Timeline

  • 05 16, 2023

History of Egypt

The main source of the history of Ancient Egypt is the discovery of the Rosetta Stone which was the link between us and Egyptian history  It helped Egyptologists to discover Egypt's history by knowing the ancient Egyptian language. They found the stone full of great historical and archaeological events that have not been discovered yet.

Prehistory (pre–3100 BC)

The civilization  of ancient Egypt was based on the Nile, and all the people started their life on the two banks of the Nile. The history of Egyptian civilization was established on the two banks of the Nile where they worked in agriculture, hunting, and trading.

Egypt History Timeline

Some facts about ancient Egypt are that it was established more than 6000 BC, and a Neolithic culture was implanted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Badari culture and the Naqada are regarded as upper Egyptian cultures. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site was Merimda, Maadi. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC.

Ancient Egypt History (3100–332 BC)
the kingdom was unified and founded by King Menes. The Egyptian culture flourished in arts, language,  Fashion, customs, religion, and also in Architecture which paved the way for the kings to build their tombs and several pyramids, starting with the Third Dynasty, the reign of king Djoser who build the pyramid of Djoser and therefore the Fourth dynasty who build the Giza Pyramids.

The first intermediate period was marked as the period of decline, and after this period the stability and prosperity of the country were restored in the Middle Kingdom and reached their peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. After his reign, Egypt was transformed into the second intermediate period, with the arrival of the Hyxos Invasion. The Hyksos occupied most of Lower Egypt and created a new capital at Avaris. They were defeated by the Upper Egyptian Hero Ahmose, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and moved the capital from Memphis to Thebes.

The Eighteenth Dynasty indicates the rise of Egypt as a powerful Kingdom. During this period Egypt flourished by the most famous pharaohs, like Hatshepsut, Tuthmosis the Third, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti and Tutankhamun, and Ramesses II. The country was later invaded and occupied by the Libyans, the Libyans, and the Assyrians, but the Egyptians eventually forced them out and regained control of their country.

In 332 BC, Macedonian king Alexander the Great conquered Egypt and after him king Ptolemy I Soter completed his invasions. The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom that ended with Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt's becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire lasted from 30 BC to 641 AD when Amr Ibn el As conquered Egypt, parts of Egypt became provinces of the Islamic Caliphates and other Muslim dynasties like the Rashidun Caliphate, Umayyad Caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate, Fatimid Caliphate, Ayyubid Sultanate, and the Mamluk Sultanate and the ottoman Sultanate In 1517, when sultan Selim the grim captured Cairo, absorbing Egypt into the Ottoman Empire.

Egypt remained under Ottoman rule then the French expedition came to Egypt from 1798 to 1801. Egypt became under the British administration in 1882 in the wake of the Anglo-Egyptian War. After the end of the First World War and after the Egyptian revolution in 1919, Egypt was established as a Republic While the United Kingdom is a de jure independent state, it retains control over foreign affairs, defense, and other matters. The British occupation continued until 1954, with the approval of the Anglo-Egyptian in 1954.

The modern Republic of Egypt was founded in 1953, Egypt became independent and ruled by the Egyptians themselves. President Gamal Abdel Nasser established the united Arab republic with Syria. Then President Anwar Sadat followed him. He restored the Sinai Peninsula again from Isreal. This subsequently led to the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. He was followed by former president Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian revolution of 2011 deposed Mubarak and resulted in the first democratically elected president in Egyptian history Mohamed Morsi who was followed by our president El Sisi.

the attractions in Egypt can be done during one of Egypt Luxury tours that allows you to stay at the most outstanding hotels and Nile cruises or if you are traveling with a small amount of money and would like to save your time and expenses you can check our wide variety of Egypt cheap budget tours packages, if you have been on an accident and suffer from a physical injury don't ever worry because our professional operators customized a collection of Egypt wheelchair accessible tours packages that use all the accessible vehicles and different facilities for disabled people which is one of the main categories of our Egypt classic tours.

An expert from Cairo Top Tours, specializing in Egyptology and speaking your language, will assist you wherever needed.

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Egypt Tours FAQ

Read top Egypt tours FAQs

The history of Egypt is incredibly rich and spans thousands of years, with a profound impact on both the region and the world. Here is a brief overview of key historical periods and their impact on Egypt:

Ancient Egypt (circa 3100 BC–30 BC):

  • Ancient Egypt is famous for its impressive monuments, such as the pyramids and temples, built during the reign of the pharaohs.
  • The civilization thrived along the Nile River, relying on its annual flooding for agriculture.
  • Ancient Egypt developed a complex system of government, religion, and hieroglyphic writing.
  • Its impact includes the preservation of knowledge in fields like medicine, mathematics, and engineering.

Greek and Roman Periods (332 BC–30 BC):

  • Egypt came under the rule of Alexander the Great and later the Ptolemaic dynasty, which blended Greek and Egyptian cultures.
  • Cleopatra VII, the famous queen of Egypt, played a significant role in these times.
  • Egypt was eventually annexed by the Roman Empire in 30 BC.
  • This period influenced art, architecture, and the spread of Hellenistic culture.

Arab Conquest and Islamic Egypt (7th century AD):

  • Egypt was conquered by Arab forces in the 7th century, marking the spread of Islam in the region.
  • Cairo was founded as the new capital, becoming a major center of Islamic culture and learning.
  • Egypt's impact includes its role in preserving and transmitting classical knowledge to Europe.

Ottoman Rule (16th century–19th century):

  • Egypt came under Ottoman rule, and its strategic location led to increased trade and economic prosperity.
  • Muhammad Ali Pasha's rule in the early 19th century marked a significant modernization effort.
  • This era had an impact on Egypt's administrative structure and modernization.

British Occupation (1882–1952):

  • Egypt became a British protectorate in 1882, which lasted until 1952.
  • Nationalist movements and the eventual Egyptian Revolution of 1952 led to independence.
  • British influence on modernization, education, and infrastructure continued.

Modern Egypt (1952–present):

  • The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 resulted in the establishment of a republic.
  • Egypt has played a central role in regional politics, including the Arab-Israeli conflict.
  • The construction of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile had a major impact on agriculture and energy production.
  • Egypt has experienced social, political, and economic changes in the modern era.

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