The history of Egypt has been very long and wealthy, due to the course of the Nile River with its fertile banks and the delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and the foreign influence. Much of the ancient history of Egypt was much of mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were finally revealed with the discovery of the Rosetta Stone during the French occupation on Egypt in the late 16th century. Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is the Great Pyramid of King Cheops in Giza Necropolis that you can easily visit during your tour to Giza Pyramids, the ancient Lighthouse Pharos that was completely disappeared after the heavy earthquake in the 6th century. The Library of Alexandria was the only one of its kind for centuries. We are going to make it simple for you to learn about all the different periods of Egypt history, which can aid the process of planning your Egypt toursEgypt Travel PackagesEgypt Day Tours, Cairo Day Tours, and Cairo day tours from airportEgypt Travel Guide is such a comprehensive guide to learn about the culture and the amazing history of the Nile Valley along with all the things to do in Cairo, Luxor excursions, Aswan tours, and much more Egypt Vacations below:

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom of Egypt History

The history of Pharaonic Egypt is divided into great periods of stability corresponding to the 30 dynasties that took turns in the government of the country from 3100 B.C to 332 B.C. We will talk about the old kingdom in detail with Cairo Top Tours!

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Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt History

The Middle Kingdom, 2040 - 1780 B.C begins with the reunification of Egypt under King Mentuhotep II, in the middle of the 11th dynasty, ending the so-called First Intermediate Period of Egypt. Discover more with Cairo Top Tours!

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The New Kingdom

The New Kingdom of Egypt History

The New Kingdom includes the Dynasties 18 to 20 (1570-1070 B.C). This stage was a moment of splendor, thanks to the work of the Theban rulers of the 18th dynasty to strengthen the State, oust the Hyksos, reestablish international relations and reopen trade routes, also starting time of conquest abroad. Discover more details about this epoch with Cairo Top Tours!

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Akhenaten's Rebellion, The First Insurgency

Akhenaten's Rebellion, The First Insurgency | Monotheism in Ancient Egypt

Akhenaten declared his total rejection of the religion prevailing in ancient Egypt with multiple gods, making Aten his diety a universal god for all peoples, and represented Aten with the sun has arms outstretched from the solar disk.

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Islamic conquest in Egypt

Muslim Conquest in Egypt | The Arab Conquest of Egypt

It can be said that the Islamic conquest of Egypt was in the eighteenth year of migration, which is the year corresponding to the year 640 A.D during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab – may Allah be pleased with him – and the leader of the conqueror was shrewd Arab companion Amr ibn al-As – may Allah be pleased with him – and he took the path To the Mediterranean coast, he reached Al-Arish and conquered it without any significant resistance.

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Christianity in Egypt

Christianity in Egypt | History of Coptic Christianity in Egypt

Egypt is one of the first countries to preach the Gospel message, and before that the Lord Jesus Christ arrived as a child with his mother and his stepfather Joseph when the angel of the Lord commanded them to go to Egypt because the king intended to kill the child Jesus (Matthew 2: 13-15). The Gospel message arrived in Egypt with the Apostle Mark, who wrote one of the Four Gospels.

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The Greco-Roman Period in Egypt

The Greco-Roman Era in Egypt | Egypt Roman Period

If the Hellenistic kingdoms fell one after the other in the hands of the Romans, then Egypt remained independent and did not turn into a Roman state until 30 BC.

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The Ptolemaic Era in Egypt

The Ptolemaic Era in Egypt | Dynasty of the Ptolemies

It is noteworthy that Egypt suffered a lot before the Ptolemies came to it, as it was under the hostile Persian occupation, which ridiculed Egypt's religions, defiled its temples, nullified its religious rites, and used force to impose its religion on the Egyptians, so the Ptolemaic campaign led by Alexander the Great over Egypt was a liberating movement; Where the Ptolemies showed their respect for the ancient Egyptian religions

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1st dynasty of ancient Egypt history

1st Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

All sources of Egyptian historiography consistently affirm that Menes was the first pharaoh. A virtual confirmation of this is provided by the famous Palermo stone. Get into the details of the 1st dynasty of ancient Egypt history which started a recorded civilization that still amaze the world, only here with Cairo Top Tours!

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The Second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The issue of arranging the names of the kings of the second dynasty is still a matter of discussion by scholars, as there is also a difference between the Manetho list and the other royal lists that give us the names of nine or ten kings, while the traces left by these kings, whose names were found on them, provide us with eight kings whose duration of their rule all ranges between 297 years and 302 years.

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The Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The old Kingdom begins with the beginning of the third dynasty, but in terms of a sequence of pure events, you find that the transition from the second family to the third family took place without any separation or interruption. We find that the first of the kings established a statue of his predecessor, in addition to the fact that we find that the queen "Nai Maat Habi Nymaathapy", which was called the title "Mother of the Royal Children"

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The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

In the version of Manetho, the name of the founder of the fourth dynasty appears as Soris, evident corruption of Snefru. Since his wife carried the title of "daughter of the god", Huni (the last pharaoh of the previous dynasty) is thought to have been her father and that Snefru owed the throne to his marriage.

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The Fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The 4th dynasty was followed by the 5th dynasty and it is composed of 9 kings who ruled Egypt from 2465 till 2323 B.C. Discover more about the fifth dynasty of ancient Egypt history with Cairo Top Tours!

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The Sixth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Sixth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The 5th dynasty was followed by the 6th dynasty and it is composed of 7 kings who ruled Egypt from 2323 till 2150 B.C. Discover more about the sixth dynasty of ancient Egypt history with Cairo Top Tours!

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The Seventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Seventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The era that followed the sixth dynasty to the appearance of the eleventh dynasty is one of the darkest ages in the history of Egypt, and historians have differed in estimating the length of this era, some said it was about 315 years. Discover more about the seventh dynasty of Egypt with Cairo Top Tours!

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The Eighth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Eighth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

During the era of the Eighth Dynasty, we found that the pharaohs of this family remained conservative in calling themselves by the names of their predecessors in most cases. For example, we find among the kings of the eighth dynasty, five pharaohs called the name “Nefer Ka Ra” and one called “Djedkara” and another called himself “ Nefer Er Kara.

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The Ninth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Ninth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

We do not know anything about the conflict that is likely to have arisen between the princes of Ahnasia and the last kings of the Eighth Dynasty in Memphis, and we do not know anything about the position of the governors of the provinces of the new family when they were raised, but it can be said that the general conditions did not differ much from that before and the new kings continued to demand friendliness Powerful rulers and seek help from them.

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The Tenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Tenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The reasons for the transfer of rule from the ninth dynasty to the tenth dynasty are still unknown, especially as we recognize through the names of their kings a type of communication. The Egyptians also used the phrase "Khatti dynasty" to refer to them. It is never ruled out that the division of the Heraclius pharaohs into two families was due to a reinterpretation of the origins of the Egyptian monarchy. Be that as it may, the tenth family includes fourteen pharaohs, most of whom are unknown.

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The French Expedition in Egypt

The French Expedition in Egypt

Before the French campaign against Egypt, Charles Majalon, the French consul in Egypt, presented his report to his government on February 9, 1798 AD, inciting it to the necessity of occupying Egypt, showing the importance of his country’s seizure of Egypt's products and trade, and enumerating the advantages that France is expected to reap from behind That.

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Naqada period in ancient Egypt

Naqada period in ancient Egypt

The porcelain industry that was widespread during the Naqada I era began to disappear, and dishes, cups and ornamental vases made from the blended child began to appear. The formation of this substance was more difficult than the formation of the indigo girl, but solid vessels suitable for preserving food for a long time are spared.

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The Eleventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Eleventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

At the end of the glorious reign of Menthotpe I, nothing suggested that his family's power would eventually come to an end. Yet, so it was. The Turin canon grants Sankhkara Menthotpe II twelve years of reign but makes him the last king of the 11th dynasty which is not entirely correct. Also in the lists of Abido and Saqqara Sankhkara is considered the immediate predecessor of Shetepibra Ammenemes I, founder of the XII dynasty and initiator of the period known to us as the Middle Kingdom.

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The Twelfth Dynasty of the History of Ancient Egypt

The Twelfth Dynasty of the History of Ancient Egypt

This Dynasty was founded by King Amenemhat the First, who was the last minister of the eleventh Dynasty, and this twelfth family has endured tremendous hardships in imposing its control and legitimacy on the children of the previous Dynasty.

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The Thirteenth Dynasty of the history of Ancient Egypt

The Thirteenth Dynasty of the History of Ancient Egypt

The thirteenth Egyptian family, is the first family in the era of the invasion of the Hyksos to Egypt, and it participates with the eleventh family, the twelfth family, and the fourteenth family to be all in the era of the middle state. The reign of this family began in the period.

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The Fourteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The Hyksos, the fourteenth dynasty, began in 1548 BC, which started the era of the Second Middle Kingdom

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The Fifteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Fifteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The fifteenth Dynasty, the first Huxusian family in Egypt, ruled from Ejtawai without controlling Egypt but rather preferred to remain in the northeast of Egypt soon from where they infiltrated into Egypt

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The Sixteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Sixteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

During the Thirteenth Dynasty, Egypt lost control of Nubia, and the residents moved from Etj-Tawi to Thebes.

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The Seventeenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Seventeenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The last king of the seventeenth dynasty, who became famous as the one who freed Egypt from the presence of the "invaders" Hyksos.

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The Eighteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Eighteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The eighteenth Egyptian dynasty (c. 1543-1292 BC), is an ancient Pharaonic family that ruled Egypt in the period (1550 BC - 1292 BC), in the modern state of ancient Egypt. And it is considered one of the most famous and strongest Egyptian families ever.

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The Nineteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Nineteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Ramses I, the pharaoh with whom the 19th dynasty was inaugurated, had been in the service of Horemheb under which he held the position of the vizier, and these, long before he died, had designated him his successor in order to solve the usual problems connected to the succession.

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The twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The twentieth dynasty in Ancient Egypt, often combined with the nineteenth dynasty under the name of the modern state. It is considered the last family of the modern state, followed by the third transitional period. It was founded by Sakht Nakhti, but the most important king was Ramesses III, who emulated Ramesses the Second in his reign.

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The Twenty-first Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-First Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

After the death of Ramses XI, a period followed in which the Pharaonic throne remained vacant, while in the south the Grand Priest of Amon acquired more and more power. However, the absence of a pharaoh could not be tolerated for long, and Nesbanebded was not long in asserting his rights. Its name means " He who belongs to the Ram of Djed " and Banebdjed is the important city in the center of the delta called Mendes by the Greeks.

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The Twenty-second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-Second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The first news about this ruler is provided by a long inscription discovered in Abido and composed when he was still "the great leader of the Meshwesh, prince of princes". His father Nemrat, son of a lady named Mehetemwaskhe, had died, and Sheshonq had turned to the ruler then ruler for permission to establish a great funeral cult in his honor in Abidos.

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The Twenty-third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Twenty-third Dynasty 828-712 BC. It consisted of a group of contemporary kings (who lived at the end of the twenty-second dynasty) who ruled in different regions and their dates are disputed.

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The Twenty-fourth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

In Sais, in the delta, around 730 BC, the local king, Tefnakht, began to rebuild the unity of the country around him. It seems that he proceeded with persuasion rather than with armed conquest: he made the local rulers recognize his authority and confirmed them as vassals in their powers.

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The Twenty-fifth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-Fifth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Manetho, oddly enough, does not speak of this great Sudanese or Cushite warrior until around 730 BC. C. suddenly changed the whole course of Egyptian events. Piankhy was the son of a chieftain or king called Kashta, and brother, apparently, of Shabaka, called by Manetho as Sabacon.

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The-Twenty-sixth-Dynasty-in-Ancient-Egypt

The 26th Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Following their conquest, the Babylonians placed governors of their trust at the helm of the Egyptian cities. The system of replacing the evil rulers with others of his choice had been inaugurated by Esarhaddon.

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The Twenty-seventh Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The 27th Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Cambyses reigned over Egypt for only three years during which he attempted several expeditions to widen and consolidate its borders, but all failed. The plan for an attack against Carthage was abandoned because the Phoenicians refused to fight against people of their own blood.

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The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The 28th Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

According to a later Egyptian tradition, Amirteos somehow offended the dictates of the law, whereby the son was denied succession. Manetho attributes to Amirteos six years of reign, probably an exact figure, since in the Aramaic papyrus of Elefantina we read a promise of payment of a debt dated in the fifth year.

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The 29th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The Twenty Ninth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

It is said of Achoris that he reigned so long "because he was generous to the temples", but that "he was overthrown because he abandoned the Law and did not care about his brothers". Ascended to the throne in 393 BC.

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The Thirtieth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The 30th dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The first pharaoh of the 30yh Dynasty was Nekhtnebef, although the order of succession has often been discussed. The number of monuments left by this sovereign could give the impression of a period of uninterrupted peace and prosperity. The oldest parts of Philae are due to him

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Ancient Egyptian Civilization

Ancient Egyptian Civilization

The first written records concerning the Egyptian civilization date back to 3000 BC, the date on which the unification process of the country began. Previously, the Egyptian territory was divided into Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. Know more about the history of Egypt with Cairo Top Tours!

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Ancient Egyptian Social Structure

Ancient Egyptian Social Structure

The pharaoh is the head of the political-social system of Ancient Egypt. In the state system, the pharaoh is the absolute ruler at the top of the hierarchical scale of the power he is charged by inheritance. Discover more info about the history of Egypt with Cairo Top Tours!

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The economy in ancient Egypt

The Economy in Ancient Egypt

The economic system of ancient Egypt is mainly based on agriculture. The territories along the Nile have high fertility which is conferred on them by the periodic flooding of the river and by a complex irrigation system. Know more about the Economy in Ancient Egypt with Cairo Top Tours!

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Science in Ancient Egypt

Science in Ancient Egypt

The science of ancient Egypt is strongly linked to the agricultural system of the country. Thanks to the studies in astronomy, the ancient Egyptians elaborate a calendar to divide the calendar year into 365 days in order to regulate the cultivation of fertile lands along the course of the Nile. Know more about Science in Ancient Egypt with Cairo Top Tours!

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Astronomy in Ancient Egypt

Astronomy in Ancient Egypt

In Egyptian civilization, astronomy plays an important role. Observing the celestial vault allows the ancient Egyptians to define the first calendars and sundials that allow you to organize agricultural activities and predict the floods of the Nile river. Know more about Astronomy in Ancient Egypt with Cairo Top Tours!

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Writing in Ancient Egypt

Writing in Ancient Egypt

Egyptian writing was invented in the third millennium B.C by the ancient Egyptians. It is a sacred scripture inscribed through hieroglyphics (hieroglyphic script). It is mainly used in religious inscriptions. Discover more interesting info about Writing in Ancient Egypt with Cairo Top Tours!

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Ancient Egyptian Language

Ancient Egyptian Language

No pyramid was destined to receive any texts. But, in 1880, an indication provided by a block of the pyramid of King Pepi I that alerts the young Gaston Maspero, who convinces Mariette in late December to excavate the ruins of another pyramid, that of King Merenre. And then there was a fabulous discovery: the walls covered by columns of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

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The Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone | Discovery of Ancient Egypt Language

If today we are able to read the hieroglyphs it is thanks to a black granite stele, discovered in 1799 by the powerful French army landed in Egypt under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte. Discover interesting facts about the Rosetta Stone and the Discovery of the Ancient Egypt Language!

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The Pharaonic Era

The Pharaonic Era

The roots of Ancient Egypt date back to about 9,000 BC when, in the Nile region, the rains, more abundant than today, supported the development of a valley and fertile savannahs on the sides of the course of the most important river in the region. Learn More about the Pharaonic Era with Cairo Top Tours!

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The Palermo Stone

The Palermo Stone

The Palermo Stone is a stone slab engraved on both sides with the list of Egyptian kings. It owes its name to the city of Palermo where it is currently preserved. The fragment, of unknown origin, was donated to the A. Salinas Archaeological Museum in Palermo in 1877 by Ferdinando Gaudiano, a collector of works of art, who would have inherited it from his father, or, for some, obtained from a navy captain.

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