Get to know more about the history of Egypt which is one of the longest and richest histories in the world, The history of Egypt has been infulenced by other nations and cultures which makes it so special and unique, the Nile River was the main factor for such a civilization to be born as it served the Egyptians and provided them with a stable life and abundant food, which allowed them to concentrate on other things and other activities and also allowed them to parctice their rituals and beliefs. Caito Top Tours is your key to start discovering the beauty and the glory in the history of Egypt which was a mystery until the secrets of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were finally dicovered when the Rosetta Stone was found during the French occupation of Egypt in the late 16th century.

Visit now one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Great Pyramid of King Cheops in Giza Necropolis that you will be visiting during your tour to Giza Pyramids, and of course the ancient Lighthouse Pharos that was completely covered after the devastating earthquake in the 6th century. and the old great Library of Alexandria which was the only one of its kind for centuries. We are going to make it simple for you to learn about all the different periods of Egypt history, which can aid the process of planning your Egypt toursEgypt Travel PackagesEgypt Day Tours, Cairo Day Tours, and Cairo day tours from airportEgypt Travel Guide is such a comprehensive guide to learn about the culture and the amazing history of the Nile Valley along with all the things to do in Cairo, Luxor excursions, Aswan tours, and much more Egypt Vacations below:

The Grand Egyptian Museum ( or the 1 billion dollar museum ) is located in Giza governorate not far from the Great pyramid and the sphinx. It is going to be one of the best things to do in Cairo as the largest museum in the whole world that displays the antiques of a single civilization like the great Pharaonic civilization. The new museum will be inaugurated soon in an international event that will be attended by the world's leaders and it is expected to be on top of things to do in Egypt's list!

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom of Egypt History

The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period after the Archaic Age, this time is called the age of the pyramid builders due to the beginning of the existence of the pyramids in ancient Egyptian architecture and in abundance, so we had from the remains of that period the three pyramids of Giza. and one of the first rulers of this period was King Djoser, owner of the step pyramid.

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Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt History

The era of the Middle Kingdom is considered one of the brightest in Pharaonic Egypt, where it was called the era of economic prosperity because the kings of the central country undertook many projects to invest natural resources in order to advance the country. Mentuhotep II managed to unite the country again after the state of chaos that affected Egypt during the era of the first transitional era.

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The New Kingdom

The New Kingdom of Egypt History

The New Kingdom of Egypt also known as the Egyptian Empire is the period of ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC. And the eleventh century BC. It was Egypt's brightest and most prosperous era. Ramses II was considered one of the most famous kings of this country.

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Akhenaten's Rebellion, The First Insurgency

Akhenaten's Rebellion, The First Insurgency | Monotheism in Ancient Egypt

Akhenaten is the pharaoh and religious reformer who ruled Egypt for seventeen years. His religious reform was to make the sun disk "Aton" the center of Egyptian religious life and to erase the name of the main Egyptian god "Amun" and his wife "Mut" from monuments and documents throughout the Egyptian Empire.

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Islamic conquest in Egypt

Muslim Conquest in Egypt | The Arab Conquest of Egypt

It can be said that the Islamic conquest of Egypt was in the eighteenth year of migration, which is the year corresponding to the year 640 A.D during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab – may Allah be pleased with him – and the leader of the conqueror was shrewd Arab companion Amr ibn al-As – may Allah be pleased with him – and he took the path To the Mediterranean coast, he reached Al-Arish and conquered it without any significant resistance.

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Christianity in Egypt

Christianity in Egypt | History of Coptic Christianity in Egypt

Egypt is one of the first countries to preach the Gospel message, and before that the Lord Jesus Christ arrived as a child with his mother and his stepfather Joseph when the angel of the Lord commanded them to go to Egypt because the king intended to kill the child Jesus (Matthew 2: 13-15). The Gospel message arrived in Egypt with the Apostle Mark, who wrote one of the Four Gospels.

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The Greco-Roman Period in Egypt

The Greco-Roman Era in Egypt | Egypt Roman Period

If the Hellenistic kingdoms fell one after the other in the hands of the Romans, then Egypt remained independent and did not turn into a Roman state until 30 BC.

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The Ptolemaic Era in Egypt

The Ptolemaic Era in Egypt | Dynasty of the Ptolemies

The era of Ptolemaic Egypt began during the period of Ptolemy I who declared himself pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC. C. and the Ptolemies are a family of Macedonian origin that arrived in Egypt after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. C.

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1st dynasty of ancient Egypt history

1st Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt, was the first Egyptian family that ruled from 3200 BC. C. Until 3000 a. C.. And the title of the ancient era is called with the second Egyptian family. All sources of Egyptian historiography consistently state that Menes was the first pharaoh.

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The Second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

In fact, until now, we do not know the reasons that led to the fall of the First Dynasty and the rise of the Second Dynasty. We do not know the incidents that occurred and ended with the taking of the throne by another family, and we also ignore the connection between the two families if there is a fact of the transmission of the king from one family to another. We follow Maniton in the divided families, there is no doubt that they have enough documents to justify this division.

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The Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The old Kingdom begins with the beginning of the third dynasty, but in terms of a sequence of pure events, you find that the transition from the second family to the third family took place without any separation or interruption. We find that the first of the kings established a statue of his predecessor, in addition to the fact that we find that the queen "Nai Maat Habi Nymaathapy", which was called the title "Mother of the Royal Children"

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The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The fourth Egyptian Dynasty is the fourth of the families that ruled Egypt from (2575 BC - 2465 BC), followed by the fifth Egyptian family and the sixth Egyptian family, and they all form the Old Kingdom era. the capital of Egypt at that time was Memphis and King Senefru is considered to be the founder of the fourth Egyptian family,

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The Fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The 4th dynasty was followed by the 5th dynasty and it is composed of 9 kings who ruled Egypt from 2465 till 2323 B.C.

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The Sixth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Sixth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Egyptian Sixth Dynasty, with the Third Dynasty, the Fourth Dynasty, and the Fifth Dynasty together make up the Old Kingdom. We have not yet inferred the reasons that led to the transfer of power from the Fifth Dynasty to the Sixth Dynasty, but it appears that this transfer took place in an atmosphere not enveloped by any political tumult.

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The Seventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Seventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The 7th Dynasty is a very well-known king in Egyptian history. Seventh to tenth families, as well as the eleventh, are known as the First Intermediate Period. Little is known about the kings of the 7th and 8th dynasties, as it was a period of confusion in Egyptian history.

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The Eighth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Eighth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

During the Eighth Dynasty era, we found out that the pharaohs of this family were still conservative in calling themselves by the names of their predecessors in most cases. For example, we find among the kings of the 8th dynasty, five pharaohs called the name "Nefer Ka Ra" and one was called "Djedkara" and another called himself "Nefer Er Kara".

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The Ninth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Ninth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

We do not know anything about the conflict that is likely to have arisen between the princes of Ahnasia and the last kings of the Eighth Dynasty in Memphis, and we do not know anything about the position of the governors of the provinces of the new family when they were raised, but it can be said that the general conditions did not differ much from that before and the new kings continued to demand friendliness Powerful rulers and seek help from them.

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The Tenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Tenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The reasons for the transfer of rule from the ninth dynasty to the tenth dynasty are still unknown, especially as we recognize through the names of their kings a type of communication. The Egyptians also used the phrase "Khatti dynasty" to refer to them. It is never ruled out that the division of the Heraclius pharaohs into two families was due to a reinterpretation of the origins of the Egyptian monarchy. Be that as it may, the tenth family includes fourteen pharaohs, most of whom are unknown.

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The French Expedition in Egypt

The French Expedition in Egypt

Before the French campaign against Egypt, Charles Majalon, the French consul in Egypt, presented his report to his government on February 9, 1798 AD, inciting it to the necessity of occupying Egypt, showing the importance of his country’s seizure of Egypt's products and trade, and enumerating the advantages that France is expected to reap from behind That.

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Naqada period in ancient Egypt

Naqada period in ancient Egypt

The porcelain industry that was widespread during the Naqada I era began to disappear, and dishes, cups, and ornamental vases made from the blended child began to appear. The formation of this substance was more difficult than the formation of the indigo girl, but solid vessels suitable for preserving food for a long time are spared.

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The Eleventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The Eleventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt History

The eleventh family is the eleventh dynasty of the ruling families in Pharaonic Egypt and ruled from 2134 BC. C. until 1991 a. The first date of the Middle Kingdom begins with the rule of the first ruler in Thebes, called Entef, and the second date begins with the realization of the political unity of the country, since the central authority in Egypt has united again in the wake of the long period of unrest thanks to the rulers of Thebes and their efforts, and the most important king of this time is Mentuhotep II.

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The Twelfth Dynasty of the History of Ancient Egypt

The Twelfth Dynasty of the History of Ancient Egypt

This Dynasty was founded by King Amenemhat the First, who was the last minister of the eleventh Dynasty, and this twelfth family has endured tremendous hardships in imposing its control and legitimacy on the children of the previous Dynasty.

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The Thirteenth Dynasty of the history of Ancient Egypt

The Thirteenth Dynasty of the History of Ancient Egypt

The Egyptian Thirteenth Dynasty is the first family in its era that began the Hyksos invasion of Egypt, and it shares with the Eleventh Dynasty, Twelfth Dynasty, and Fourteenth Dynasty to all be in the Middle Kingdom. The reign of this family began in the period (1790 BC - 1649 BC).

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The Fourteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The Hyksos, the fourteenth dynasty, began in 1548 BC, which started the era of the Second Middle Kingdom

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The Fifteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Fifteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The fifteenth Dynasty, the first Huxusian family in Egypt, ruled from Ejtawai without controlling Egypt but rather preferred to remain in the northeast of Egypt soon from where they infiltrated into Egypt

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The Sixteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Sixteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

During the Thirteenth Dynasty, Egypt lost control of Nubia, and the residents moved from Etj-Tawi to Thebes.

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The Seventeenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Seventeenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The last king of the seventeenth dynasty, who became famous as the one who freed Egypt from the presence of the "invaders" Hyksos.

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The Eighteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Eighteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The eighteenth Egyptian dynasty (c. 1543-1292 BC), is an ancient Pharaonic family that ruled Egypt in the period (1550 BC - 1292 BC), in the modern state of ancient Egypt. And it is considered one of the most famous and strongest Egyptian families ever. This dynasty is also known as the Thutmose dynasty, in honor of the four pharaohs who were named Thutmose.

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The Nineteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Nineteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Ramses I, the pharaoh with whom the 19th dynasty was inaugurated, had been in the service of Horemheb under which he held the position of the vizier, and these, long before he died, had designated him his successor in order to solve the usual problems connected to the succession.

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The twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The twentieth dynasty in Ancient Egypt, often combined with the nineteenth dynasty under the name of the modern state. It is considered the last family of the modern state, followed by the third transitional period. It was founded by Sakht Nakhti, but the most important king was Ramesses III, who emulated Ramesses the Second in his reign.

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The Twenty-first Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-First Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

After the death of Ramses XI, a period followed in which the Pharaonic throne remained vacant, while in the south the Grand Priest of Amon acquired more and more power. However, the absence of a pharaoh could not be tolerated for long, and Nesbanebded was not long in asserting his rights. Its name means " He who belongs to the Ram of Djed " and Banebdjed is the important city in the center of the delta called Mendes by the Greeks.

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The Twenty-second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-Second Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The first news about this ruler is provided by a long inscription discovered in Abido and composed when he was still "the great leader of the Meshwesh, prince of princes". His father Nemrat, son of a lady named Mehetemwaskhe, had died, and Sheshonq had turned to the ruler then ruler for permission to establish a great funeral cult in his honor in Abidos.

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The Twenty-third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Twenty-third Dynasty 828-712 BC. It consisted of a group of contemporary kings (who lived at the end of the twenty-second dynasty) who ruled in different regions and their dates are disputed.

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The Twenty-fourth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

In Sais, in the delta, around 730 BC, the local king, Tefnakht, began to rebuild the unity of the country around him. It seems that he proceeded with persuasion rather than with armed conquest: he made the local rulers recognize his authority and confirmed them as vassals in their powers.

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The Twenty-fifth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The 25th Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Manetho, oddly enough, does not speak of this great Sudanese or Cushite warrior until around 730 BC. C. suddenly changed the whole course of Egyptian events. Piankhy was the son of a chieftain or king called Kashta, and brother, apparently, of Shabaka, called by Manetho as Sabacon.

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The-Twenty-sixth-Dynasty-in-Ancient-Egypt

The 26th Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Following their conquest, the Babylonians placed governors of their trust at the helm of the Egyptian cities. The system of replacing the evil rulers with others of his choice had been inaugurated by Esarhaddon.

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The Twenty-seventh Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The 27th Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

Cambyses reigned over Egypt for only three years during which he attempted several expeditions to widen and consolidate its borders, but all failed. The plan for an attack against Carthage was abandoned because the Phoenicians refused to fight against people of their own blood.

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The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

The 28th Dynasty in Ancient Egypt

According to a later Egyptian tradition, Amirteos somehow offended the dictates of the law, whereby the son was denied succession. Manetho attributes to Amirteos six years of reign, probably an exact figure, since in the Aramaic papyrus of Elefantina we read a promise of payment of a debt dated in the fifth year.

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The 29th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The 29th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The XXVIIII Dynasty is one of the well-known rulers in Egyptian history. It was founded by Nefretes I. By defeating Amirtaeus in open battle and then later killing him in Memphis. Nephritis took the capital from him at Mendes.

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The Thirtieth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The 30th dynasty of Ancient Egypt

The first pharaoh of the 30yh Dynasty was Nekhtnebef, although the order of succession has often been discussed. The number of monuments left by this sovereign could give the impression of a period of uninterrupted peace and prosperity. The oldest parts of Philae are due to him

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Ancient Egyptian Civilization

Ancient Egyptian Civilization

Egypt is considered the land of civilizations since the most remote times since civilizations were established on the banks of the Nile River, which is considered a symbol of fertility and stability for the peoples of ancient and even modern Egypt, and civilizations Ancient Egypt began more than 5500 years before Christ. These two kingdoms came under a single rule, and the ruler over them was King Narmer, who he called Minis, and from here the civilization of ancient Egypt began.

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Ancient Egyptian Social Structure

Ancient Egyptian Social Structure

The social and organizational structure in ancient Egypt was classified in the form of a hierarchy headed by the king. The pharaoh is the head of the political-social system of Ancient Egypt. In the state system, the pharaoh is the absolute ruler at the top of the hierarchical scale of power attributed to him by inheritance.

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The economy in ancient Egypt

The Economy in Ancient Egypt

Egypt's economy was based on agriculture, due to the fertility of the land in the Nile Valley. Its agricultural production was so great that the money obtained from agriculture was used in the construction of temples and pyramids.

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Science in Ancient Egypt

Science in Ancient Egypt

The science of ancient Egypt is strongly linked to the agricultural system of the country. Thanks to the studies in astronomy, the ancient Egyptians elaborate a calendar to divide the calendar year into 365 days in order to regulate the cultivation of fertile lands along the course of the Nile.

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Astronomy in Ancient Egypt

Astronomy in Ancient Egypt

In Egyptian civilization, astronomy plays an important role. Observing the celestial vault allows the ancient Egyptians to define the first calendars and sundials that allow you to organize agricultural activities and predict the floods of the Nile river.

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Writing in Ancient Egypt

Writing in Ancient Egypt

Hieroglyphic writing appeared in 3100 BC. C. They represent engraved and sacred symbols that carry the sayings of the gods and express the spoken meaning, symbols and sounds in the drawing

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Ancient Egyptian Language

Ancient Egyptian Language

No pyramid was destined to receive any texts. But, in 1880, an indication provided by a block of the pyramid of King Pepi I that alerts the young Gaston Maspero, who convinces Mariette in late December to excavate the ruins of another pyramid, that of King Merenre. And then there was a fabulous discovery: the walls covered by columns of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

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The Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone | Discovery of Ancient Egypt Language

If today we are able to read the hieroglyphs it is thanks to a black granite stele, discovered in 1799 by the powerful French army landed in Egypt under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.

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The Pharaonic Era

The Pharaonic Era

The roots of Ancient Egypt date back to about 9,000 BC when, in the Nile region, the rains, more abundant than today, supported the development of a valley and fertile savannahs on the sides of the course of the most important river in the region. Learn More about the Pharaonic Era with Cairo Top Tours!

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The Palermo Stone

The Palermo Stone

the Palermo stone includes a list of the names of the kings of Egypt from the era of the First Dynasty until the middle of the Fifth Dynasty, among them King Senefru, King Khufu, and King Jadfre. The stone also recorded the amount of the annual rise in the water level of the Nile.

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The Hep Sed Festival in Ancient Egypt

The Hep Sed Festival in Ancient Egypt

The Hep-Sed Festival was an important occasion that used to be held thirty years after a king had come to the throne, it was also known as the royal jubilee. Discover more about this festival with Cairo Top Tours!

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The First Intermediate Period of Egypt History

The First Intermediate Period of Egypt History

An Egyptian intermediate period means that the government of the country had become weaker and that terrible chaos had taken over. Discover more about the 1st intermediate period of ancient Egypt history with Cairo Top Tours!

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