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Kings and Rulers of Egypt

  • 05 16, 2023

king of Egypt

Kings and Rulers of Egypt

The kings and pharaohs of Egypt made Egypt the most glorious kingdom some of them were not of Egyptian origin, but in fact, king pharaohs of Egypt made great achievements in history, like Alexender the great who is one of the most famous rulers in the ancient world, and Mohmed Ali the founder of the modern history, also we have a lot of women who ruled Egypt.

Most Famous Rulers Of Ancient Egypt:

The Kings Of Egypt enjoyed absolute power and control over their kingdom and also they made Egypt a luxurious country like king Djoser.


Djoser  in an Egyptian pharaoh ruled Egypt during the 3rd Dynasty. He made the first step pyramid at Saqqara complex which was designed by his famous architect Imhotep. Stories claimed that Egypt suffered 7-years of famine during his reign.


King Khufu ruled Egypt during the Old Kingdom, the Fourth Dynasty. He was the owner of the Great Pyramid of Giza, which was regarded as one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. It comprises of 2 million stones, each weighing between 2 and 15 tons. After his death, some Egyptians created a cult to worship him as a god.


The great female Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, Hatshepsut after her husband Thutmose II died. His son was young to rule the country alone and Hatshepsut was appointed as a co-regent. She used her right to rule the country and usurped the throne of Egypt. Her reign lasted for nearly 20 years. During her reign, she achieved various architectural projects and sent trade expeditions to the land of Punt to bring back exotic goods to satisfy the priests of Amen. 

Thutmose III

Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II, his mother was Isis. He was too young to rule Egypt when his father died, leaving Hatshepsut as his regent on the throne, and later on, he became the ruler of the country. Thutmose III  was known as the Napoleon of the East because he led about 17 military expeditions and never lost a battle but he captured around 350 cities. He is the first person in history to use the sea during war efforts against the Kingdoms of Phoenicia. He is known for increasing the wealth of Egypt and for treating his captures fairly.

king Amenhotep III

Amenhotep III 

Amenhotep III ruled Egypt during the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. Amenhotep III established his administration system by pursuing diplomatic relations, building monuments, and encouraging the arts. Egypt lived in peace under his reign. His son Akhenaten followed him.


Akhenaten or Amenhotep IV was the son of Amenhotep III. At the beginning of his rule, he built a temple for the god Aten and asked the people to worship Aton instead of the god Amen. In his fifth year, he changed the capital from Thebes to a new place at El Amarna and named it Akhetaten. He changed the religion, claiming that Aten, the solar disc god was the only Egyptian god which means that he changed polytheism into a monotheistic religion. Queen Nefertiti was her favorite wife. He was seeking realism in art, so the artist quickly changed the idealism in art which caused some exaggerations in art which appeared in the elongated necks and arms, long necks, and weak muscles. These physical attributes are thought to be symptoms of Marfan Syndrome.

Ramses II

Ramses II is considered one of the most powerful kings of Egypt in the New Kingdom. He ruled Egypt during the 19th Dynasty. He was the son of king Seti I.

During his reign, more structures were built like the great temples of Abu simple and the Ramasseum. Ramses II is also famous for his military achievements which allowed him to reunite the Egyptian kingdom that had been lost under the rule of king Akhenaten. He was defied as a god in his temple at Aswan. He led several military expeditions and the famous battle was the great battle of Qadesh.

 Ramses III 

Ramses III is one of the famous kings of Egypt whose reign is considered a glorious reign.  He was the second king of the 20th Dynasty and is considered to be the last ruler with significant authority. Ramses III built great temples like his funerary temple of Madinat habu. During his reign, Harem Consipercy took place as one of his wives and a number of his officials plotted against and tried to kill Ramses III, whose wife was named Pentewert, who want to take the throne.

Cleopatra VII 

Cleopatra VII is one of the most well-known ancient Egyptian rulers. She has been depicted in movies, plays, and books. She inherited her position after the death of her father, King Ptolemy XII. Because of the laws that prohibiting women from ruling the kingdom, she was forced to share her throne with her younger brother and later with her son. She ruled Egypt and had control over the Egyptian Kingdom. In order to secure an alliance with the Roman Empire, Cleopatra VII married Caesar and Mark Antony.



Tutankhamun ruled during the 18th Dynasty, becoming pharaoh at the age of 9. He was a pharaoh between 1332 and 1323 BC. He moved the capital to Thebes and returned Egyptian religion to a focus on Amun, a previously worshiped God, instead of Aten. His short rule left a very small impact on Egypt. Today, he is famous for the treasures found in his tomb during the 1920s. His tomb is also said to be cursed; dozens of people have died after coming into contact with it.

Roman Egypt:
Egypt was established as a Roman province in consequence of the Battle of Actium, where Cleopatra as the last independent ruler of Egypt, and her Roman ally Mark Antony were defeated by Octavian, the adopted heir of the assassinated Roman dictator Julius Caesar. August established Egypt as an imperial province and he was followed by other emperors.

Islamic Egypt:

1. The Rashidun Caliphs era (640–658)

2. Umayyad Caliphate era (659–750)

3. Abbasid Caliphate era (750–969)

4. The Tulunid Dynasty (868–905)

5. The Second Abbasid Period (905–935)

6. The Ikhshidid Dynasty (935–969)

7. Fatimid Caliphate (969–1171)

8. Ayyubid Sultanate (1171–1252)

9. Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517)

10. Burji Mamluks (1382–1517)

History of Ottoman Egypt:
The Ottoman Empire's governors of Egypt from 1517 to 1805 were at various times known by different but synonymous titles, among them beylerbey, viceroy, governor, the governor-general, or, more generally, wāli. Furthermore, the Ottoman sultans very often changed positions of their governors in rapid succession, leading to complex and long lists of incumbents (this being the main reason for a political crisis in 1623, where the local Ottoman soldiers successfully sued to keep Kara Mustafa Pasha as governor after his replacement by Çeşteci Ali Pasha after only one year).

Governors ruled from the Cairo Citadel in Cairo. They ruled along with their divan (governmental council), consisting of a kadı (judge) and defender (treasurer). The title "beylerbey" refers to the regular governors specifically appointed to the post by the Ottoman sultan, while the title "kaymakam", when used in the context of Ottoman Egypt, refers to an acting governor who ruled over the province between the departure of the previous governor and the arrival of the next one. Although almost all governors succeeded and were preceded by a kaymakam due to the traveling distance from their old post to Egypt.

Egypt (or part of it) was continuously ruled by the pharaohs for nearly 2,500 years until it was conquered by the Kingdom of Kush at the end of the eighth century BC, whose rulers adopted the title.  After the Kushite invasion, Egypt went through another period of independent rule before it was invaded by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also took the nickname "Pharaoh".  Nectanebo II was the last pharaoh of Egypt before the Achaemenids invaded Egypt for the second time.

List of monarchs of the Muhammad Ali dynasty (1805–1953):

Presidents of Modern Egypt:

The first president of Egypt was Mohamed Naguib, one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, who took office on 18 June 1953, the day on which Egypt was declared a republic. Since then the office has been held by five further people: Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat, Hosni Mubarak, Mohamed Morsi, and Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. In addition, Sufi Abu Taleb acted as president between Sadat's assassination and the election of his successor, and Adly Mansour acted as president after Morsi's overthrow in the 2013 coup d'état.

Following Hosni Mubarak's resignation on 11 February 2011 in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, the office was vacant, with the functions of head of state and head of government being discharged by the chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi.

Mohamed Morsi took office on 30 June 2012, after being elected by the presidential election held on 23–24 May and 16–17 June 2012. He was deposed by the Egyptian Armed Forces in a coup d'état on 3 July 2013, following massive protests calling for his resignation. He was succeeded by Adly Mansour, the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, as Acting President. Mansour was sworn into office in front of the Supreme Constitutional Court on 4 July 2013.

Current President el-Sisi took office on 8 June 2014, after being elected by the presidential election held on 26–28 May 2014.

Know more about the history of Egypt If you're planning any tours to Egypt or from our variety of tours from Cairo. Make your stay in Egypt a memorable one.


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Egypt Tours FAQ

Read top Egypt tours FAQs

Ancient Egypt had many notable rulers throughout its long history, but some of the most famous and significant pharaohs include:

Narmer (c. 3100–3050 BCE): Narmer is often credited with unifying Upper and Lower Egypt, as symbolized by the Narmer Palette, one of the earliest known historical artifacts from ancient Egypt.

Djoser (c. 2670–2640 BCE): Djoser is known for commissioning the construction of the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, which is considered one of the earliest monumental stone structures in the world.

Khufu (c. 2580–2560 BCE): Pharaoh Khufu is famous for building the Great Pyramid of Giza, the largest of the pyramids and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Hatshepsut (c. 1479–1458 BCE): Hatshepsut was one of the few female pharaohs of Egypt. Her reign is known for its relative stability and the construction of the famous mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri.

Thutmose III (c. 1479–1425 BCE): Thutmose III was a warrior pharaoh who expanded the Egyptian empire to its greatest territorial extent. He is often regarded as one of Egypt's greatest military leaders.

Akhenaten (c. 1353–1336 BCE): Akhenaten is famous for his religious reforms, which temporarily shifted Egypt's religion to the worship of the sun disk, Aten, and moved the capital to Amarna. His reign marked a significant departure from traditional Egyptian religious practices.

Tutankhamun (c. 1332–1323 BCE): Tutankhamun, often referred to as King Tut, is famous for his well-preserved tomb, which was discovered in the early 20th century. Although his reign was relatively short, his tomb provided invaluable insights into ancient Egyptian art and culture.

Ramses II (c. 1279–1213 BCE): Ramses II, also known as Ramses the Great, is one of the most celebrated pharaohs in Egyptian history. He is known for his numerous military campaigns, extensive building projects (including Abu Simbel and the Ramesseum), and the famous Battle of Kadesh.

Cleopatra VII (69–30 BCE): Cleopatra, while not of Egyptian descent, is one of the most famous figures associated with ancient Egypt due to her relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. She was the last pharaoh of Egypt and the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty.


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