The Middle Kingdom, 2040 - 1780 B.C begins with the reunification of Egypt under King Mentuhotep II, in the middle of the 11th dynasty, ending the so-called First Intermediate Period of Egypt. Discover more with Cairo Top Tours!
The Middle Kingdom, which covers from 2061 to 1785 B.C, includes the 11th dynasty and the 12th dynasty, which corresponds to a recovery of the unitary state after the phase of fragmentation of power following the collapse of the Old Kingdom. The move of the capital to Thebes (Luxor now) marks the beginning of this stage.
During this time, Egypt expanded its borders by conquering part of Nubia. Subsequently, however, it was unable to cope with the raids of the Hyksos and was forced to surrender power to the latter. The Hyksos, who came from Asia, ruled the country between the 13th dynasty and the 17th dynasty and established their political center of government in Avaris.
Without a centralized government, the authority was not effective, since the atomization of power was imposed. Egyptian art became more local, and no noticeable burial complex was built. Religion was also democratized when the lower classes claimed rights that were previously reserved only for royalty. For example, they could use fragments drawn from the Pyramid Texts on the walls of their coffins or tombs.
During the 11th dynasty, began the Middle Kingdom with the reunification of the north and south. The dynasty itself began with 3 kings after Mentuhotep who were in fact little more than kings, who ruled from Thebes. All three are named Intef and participated in wars against the kings of Heracleopolis.
The 13th dynasty, made up of seven kings from Thebes, was one of the most glorious in Egypt. The first pharaoh was Amenemhat I. He stood out for the energy of his government, the pharaohs adopted a theophoric name: Mentuhotep is named after God Montu, the local god of the city of Ermant.
This era was characterized by an evolution of religious ideas. Instead of being considered as in former times, as a god, kings will now be considered as insignificant mortals, although of great skill and courage. The relationship between humanity and the divinity of kings was a very important mental problem for the Egyptians. The unit was restored ending the power of the kings and the nomes disappeared as administrative units and new administrative units were created: city and its surrounding territory.
Kings of the Middle Kingdom: 2030–1640 B.C.
The 11th dynasty kings: 2030–1981 B.C.
The 12th dynasty kings: 1981–1802 B.C.
The 13th and 14th dynasties: 1802–1640 B.C. -- 1750-1650
If you're planning to visit Egypt, then you should consider reviewing our detailed Egypt travel guide, as it is a very unique experience during Egypt Tours that is not comparable with any other things to do in Egypt. You can enjoy one of the Classic tours in Egypt, that all travelers would like to cruise the Nile River during Christmas tours in Egypt or while the best weather during Easter tours in Egypt. Covering most of Cairo day trips, Luxor day tours in addition to Aswan excursions, that is why our travel information section is meant to useful before proceeding with Egypt's best tours for those who seek culture, history of Egypt, and luxurious accommodation while sailing the Nile Valley.