The cultural complexity and concentration of settlements in the Late Paleolithic, also attributed to the importance of the presence of the Nile, are part of the slow process of decentralization found in North Africa from around 15,000 B.C. Discover the ancient civilization of ancient Nubia with Cairo Top Tours!
Nubia (Arabic Nuba) A region of northeastern Africa, situated between Egypt and Sudan, crossed longitudinally by the Nile, limited to the North by the floodgates of Aswan, East from the Red Sea, South from the junction of the Blue Nile and the White Nile, West from the Libyan desert. Only in the immediate proximity of the Nile, interrupted by six floodgates, there is a strip of arable land, crossed by rail; here are the main centers: Berber, caravan center for the Red Sea, at the confluence of the Atbara; the old center of Wadi Halfa, on the border between Egypt and Sudan, was submerged following the construction of the Aswan High Dam.
At the beginning of the historical age (3500 B.C), while the Egyptian civilization was acquiring more and more independent characteristics, Nubia. continued a delayed Subneolithic (so-called "group A and B" cultures), which at the end of the Old Kingdom (2250 B.C) developed into an autonomous and rich ceramic production (so-called 'group C' culture, which will constitute the original background of all the superimpositions of Egyptian culture of the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom).
History of Nubia
The Old Kingdom was only interested in the exploitation of the gold mines of the Nubian land; in the Middle Kingdom, military expeditions conducted to defend the country's southern borders and trade routes resulted in the construction of a series of Egyptian fortresses along the river to Semnah, south of the second cataract, without a process of merging with the population indigenous or forms of expansion. With the New Kingdom, under Thutmosis I (1504-1492 B.C) the Nubia was invaded until the fourth cataract and the country was joined and administered as an Egyptian province. However, this is a moment of particular richness for Nubia itself. which, on the one hand, remains faithful to the natural ceramic production of 'group C', on the other hand, by Ramses II, is enriched with monumental temples, of which the most important are the two of Abu Simbel, and which differ from the contemporary Egyptian ones in that they are cut into the mountain. Around 1100 B.C the period of Egyptian domination ended; towards 750 B.C, the Nubia was established as a self-ruling state with the capital Napata and gradually extended its authority to Egypt, which at the time was politically in crisis. In this phase, the artistic production was inspired by the Egyptian works of the most archaic period and the pyramids returned to use as royal burials.
it is a land of considerable charm and interest, capable of offering the suggestion of the Saharan landscape with its nomads, the family lived in the peasant villages along the banks of the Nile, inhabited by a friendly and very hospitable population, and finally the imposing and unrecognized remains of ancient civilizations that have followed one another in this area for 4 thousand years, often in close connection with the Egyptian one.
In fact, archaeologists consider Nubia as one of the richest and most interesting areas of the continent, where research is still in its infancy.