Built by Ramses II, Abu Simbel Temple is one of the most famous monuments of the new kingdom' ancient Egypt, together with the Pyramids and the Great Sphinx of Giza. Located on the southern edge of the country, carved in a mountain in the 19th dynasty, it is a breathtaking sight that not to be missed!
Its 33 m high facade, with the four colossal statues of Ramses II wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, had the role of showing the supremacy of the pharaoh to visitors coming from the south from the time of the new kingdom exactly the 19th dynasty.
The great temple was dedicated to the protective gods of ancient Egypt. Amun of Thebes (Luxor nowadays), Ptah of Memphis (the capital of Egypt during the old kingdom), and Ra-Harakhty of Heliopolis. Carved into the rocky cliff on the western bank of the Nile, it was started in the fifth year of Pharaoh's reign and completed throughout 30 years.
At the dawn of the time of the great pharaohs of ancient Egypt, the monument was neglected and gradually covered by sand. It completely disappeared from history, without being mentioned anymore by the Greeks or the Romans.
Thanks to Lewis Burkhardt, a Swiss explorer who in 1813 describes the place as a set of statues from which you can see little more than the head and shoulders. In 1817, the Italian explorer Giovanni Battista Belzoni managed to enter the temple but was unfortunately disappointed by the few objects portrayed inside. The monument remained partially in the sand for other decades, revealed in its complete majesty only by 1909.
The smallest temple in Abu Simbel, dedicated to the goddess of love, Hathor, was built by Ramses II in honor of his beloved wife, Nefertari. On the front of the temple, there are six colossal statues about 10 meters high depicting Ramses II and the queen. These are flanked by smaller figures for other members of the royal family.
Inside the temple, the hypostyle hall is decorated with pillars topped with heads of Hathor and scenes for Ramses fighting the enemies in the legendary battle of Kadesh. The walls are adorned with scenes depicting Nefertari, Hathor, and Mut. On the back wall, the royal couple is depicted giving offerings to the gods.
In the 1960s, Abu Simbel temples were relocated, as Lake Nasser threatened to submerge them. The move was carried out under the guidance of UNESCO, transporting and relocating the monuments on an artificial hill, located 210 meters away and 65 meters higher than the original site.
Abu Simbel temples are among the Must-see stops of all Egypt Nile River Cruises and included within most of Egypt Day Tours, Egypt Travel Packages, and Aswan day tours or even during Luxor excursions.
Egypt tours are many and varied,
Visit the significant sites in Aswan as well as many other places and wonderful sites while you travel to Egypt: