The longest river in the world and is formed by the White and Blue Niles. One of the most outstanding characteristics of the Nile is that it is the river that rises in the south and empties in the north. The two tributaries of the Nile, the White Nile, and the Blue Nile meet in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. From there, the journey up the Nile begins to its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea, east of Alexandria.
The Nile River is the longest in the world, as it extends to the south of the equator, and flows to the northeast. Covering 3349000 km2, the basin includes 11 African countries: "Uganda, Eritrea, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Burundi, Kenya, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt."
The Nile River is considered the main reason for the development of Egyptian civilization thousands of years ago, according to the writings of the ancient Greek historian Herodotus who said that Egypt is the gift of the Nile, where the dry desert lands in Egypt turned into fertile lands due to the formation of silt deposits along the banks of the Nile River, which led to the growth of the ancient Egyptian civilization, This was cultivated by wheat, flax, and papyrus along the banks of the Nile
The Nile in Egypt stretches from the northern border of Lake Nasser in Aswan to the north of Cairo, where the Nile is divided to form the Nile Delta into two branches, Rashid and Damietta.
In ancient times, the primitive Egyptians settled along the banks of the River Nile where they built simple houses and cottages for accommodation, grew many crops, and since then the first steps to the Egyptian glory had begun. Cultivation was the starting point as the Nile River watered, carrying silt deposits that covered the lands along the Nile Valley and make them fertile. Wheat was the first product, the ancient Egyptians cultivated, dependent on the Nile floods as a solution to the threat of hunger and lack of food at that time. On the other side, they used some animals such as water buffalos and camels for food, plowing, and carrying goods.
More than 95% of the population of the Egyptian Republic lives on the banks of the Nile, and in this way, the Nile Valley is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with an average population of about 3,820 people per 1.61 square kilometers, and the reason for this is that the Nile is the lifeblood of the Egyptian Republic, where farmers produce large quantities of different crops such as citrus, cotton, wheat, sugar cane, legumes, and sorghum. Despite the success of agricultural programs in the Nile Basin, Nile flows are still poor in some countries, so the Nile Basin Initiative began in 1999. In order to help these countries benefit from the river
As a part of the ancient pharaohs’ interests of the religious life and their insistence to create many gods and goddesses for physical elements, they honored the Nile River by creating Sobek “God of the Nile” or it was named “God of Crocodile” the god of a man with a crocodile head represented fertility, wetlands, medicine, and sudden death and the Nile River is regarded to be the sweat of Sobek. Another God related to the Nile in Ancient Egypt is “Hapi” which’s called “Lord of the River Bringing Vegetation” or “Lord of the Fish and Birds of the Marshes” the god of yearly floods of the Nile which greatly controlled the water level.
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