is located on the west bank of the Nile, north-west Mallawi at Minya. Named ḫmnw which means ‘town of eight’
It is linked to the beginning of the creation of the primeval mound into being. Al Ashmunein was the capital of the old kingdom and developed into a major city during the Roman period, and it was an early Christian center from the third century.
Near modern el-Ashmuneina town known as Khmunw in Pharaonic times. It is important as a cult center of Thoth, the god of wisdom, healing, and writing. In the Graeco-Roman Period, the city was the capital of the 15th Upper Egyptian. The roman contact with the god Hermes and god Thoth is shown in a baboon’s shape. Temple of Thoth: the great pylon built by Horemheb at 18 Dynasty and Rameses II in 19 dynasty.
The Structure enclosed the temple surrounded by a huge mudbrick wall, 15 m deep. The Gateway is on the southern side of the temple enclosure, A structure in front of the Ramesside pylon contained obelisks, royal statues, stelae, and sphinxes of Nectanebo, Alexander the Great added a construction by two rows of six limestone columns and much colorful decoration. Now it has 6 columns.
South-west of the Temple of Thoth are the remains of an east-facing limestone sanctuary of Amun. South-east of the Amun temple there are remains of a monumental gateway dating to the late Middle Kingdom reign of Amenemhet II, maybe an entrance to the Temple of Thoth. On the western side of the site, there are well-constructed mudbrick houses dating to the Third Intermediate Period.