Hermopolis (El-Ashmunein)



The Ministry of Antiquities recently founded in Ashmonin, one of Egyptian Ancient City and capital of the Upper Egyptian areas a former Cemetery which included a group of burial wells dating back to the late Pharaohs and early Ptolemaic eras.


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Al Ashmunein is located on the west bank of the Nile, north-west Mallawi at Minya. Named ḫmnw which means ‘town of eight’

It is linked to the beginning of the creation on the primeval mound into being. Al Ashmunein was a capital since the old kingdom and developed into a major city during the Roman period, and it was an early Christian center from the third century.

Near modern el-Ashmuneina town known as Khmunw in Pharaonic times.  It is an importance as a cult center of Thoth, god of wisdom, healing, and writing. In the Graeco-Roman Period the city was capital of the 15th Upper Egyptian. The roman contact with the god Hermes and god thoth who is shown in baboon’s shape. Temple of Thoth: the great pylon built by Horemheb at 18 Dynasty and Rameses II at 19 dynasties.

The Structure and enclosed the temple surrounded by a huge mudbrick wall, 15 m deep. The Gateway is on the southern side of the temple enclosure, A structure in front of the Ramesside pylon contained obelisks, royal statues, stelae, and sphinxes of Nectanebo, Alexander the Great added a constructing by two rows of six limestone columns and much colorful decoration. Now it has 6 columns. 

South-west of the Temple of Thoth are the remains of an east-facing limestone sanctuary of Amun. South-east of the Amun temple there are remains of a monumental gateway dating to the late Middle Kingdom reign of Amenemhet II, maybe an entrance to the Temple of Thoth. At the western side of the site, there are well-constructed mudbrick houses dating to the Third Intermediate Period.

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