Akhenaten was considered the first to develop a modernized religion that unified rituals towards one side; During his reign, he established a cult based on the sanctification of the god (Aten), which was depicted as the disk of the sun; In some ancient monuments, inscriptions appeared depicting the god Aten as a disk of the sun in the sky extending its rays downward to reach the royal family. Akhenaten devoted his efforts to new worship,
so he built many new temples dedicated to the worship of the god There are many wonderful and amazing places of worship, Such as the temples in Karnak and Tell el-Amarna, and large numbers of offering tables were presented; To celebrate the god Aten, he was not satisfied with sanctifying his new god but desecrated the monuments bearing the image or name of the former god (Amon).
Akhenaten ruled ancient Egypt for fourteen years, between 1352 BC-1338 BC; As he took power after his father Amenhotep III.
The period in which he ruled was known as (Amarna), and the Amarna period extended to include the rule of Pharaoh Smenkhar and Tutankhamun.
At the beginning of his rule, it was in the city of Thebes, then he moved from it to take for himself a capital in a city called (Akhitaten), which means Akhenaten.
The ancient Egyptian language: (the horizon of the disk of the sun), which is an area located along the eastern coast of the Nile, knowing that he was keen to build and equip it quickly using relatively small stone blocks that are easy to lift. In the city, in 1887 AD, letters that numbered 350 were discovered, called the Amarna Letters.
It is a diplomatic correspondence between Akhenaten, and the kings of Western Asia; In that period, the Hittite Empire appeared in Turkey today, which fought wars against the allies of the Pharaohs, and tried to create unrest and instability in the region of Syria, and the kings tried to deter them by directing military campaigns towards them.
It should be noted that Akhenaten died in mysterious circumstances, and was succeeded in ruling by Tutankhamun, who is believed to have been his son, and after a few years, his capital Akhitaten was abandoned.
Art during the reign of Akhenaten took new forms, different from the previous period.
The royal family was depicted with bodies with elongated necks, arms, and long, slender legs, the most famous of which is the carved image that shows Akhenaten, his wife Nefertiti, and the children touching the rays coming from the god Aten, and this image was interpreted by theories; One of them explained that the aim of the elongation is to show the transformations that occur to humans when they come into contact with the rays of the Aten that carry the force.
The second explanation states that the royal family was suffering from a genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome, and the ages differed in the period; Because it shows the royal family in intimate pictures, while the pictures of the pharaohs before were personal pictures showing the pharaoh engaging in hunting activity, or appearing as a warrior in battles, or standing with his god or queen in majestic scenes.
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