The Palermo stone contains a list of Egyptian kings from the First Dynasty to the middle of the Fifth Dynasty, including King Senefru, King Khufu, and King Jadfre, among others. The sum of the annual rise in the Nile's water level was also reported on the stone.

The Palermo Stone

It was part of a black amphibolic diorite plate, on the faces of which the chronicle of about 700 years of Egyptian life was engraved. The most probable date dates back to the mid-fifth dynasty around 2400 BC.

The text is written with hieroglyphic characters and contains the registration of the names of the kings, the name of their mothers, and some religious events and holidays, as well as the dates of the floods of the Nile from the 1st to the 5th dynasty (3100-2407 BC).

The remaining part measures 43 cm in height by 30.5 in width, while originally it is assumed that it had a length of about 2 meters and a height of 60cm. Other, smaller fragments, found later, are found in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and in London.

Five other fragments belonging to the same find were recovered later, in Cairo (1910) where they are currently kept at the Archaeological Museum, while another fragment is kept in London, in the Petrie Collection of the University College. The origin of the document was identified by the Egyptologist H. Scäfer, in collaboration with L. Borchardt and K. Sethe.