Cleopatra VII | Cleopatra Philopator | The Macedonian Dynasty in Egypt



Cleopatra VII or Cleopatra Philopator, is one of the most important kings of Pharaonic Egypt, as she was the richest queen of the Mediterranean, besides being the most powerful woman of the Macedonian dynasty in Egypt.


Cleopatra Philopator

Cleopatra VII is probably among the most famous characters of ancient Egypt and of all history, she was the last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic era, which began with Ptolemy I, to reign over the Kingdom of Egypt and also the last of the whole Hellenistic period, which began with Alexander the Great and whose end corresponds precisely with his death.

A strong and independent woman, she attempted a communicative policy, despite the continued growth of the authority of the Roman Republic in the Mediterranean Sea; in fact, she managed to relate effectively to this great power of her time due to the personal relationship he established with two important Roman generals, Julius Caesar and Marco Anthony, and had a central role in the last republican civil war, which led to the birth of the Roman Empire at the hands of Octavian Augustus.

After a brief co-regency with her father, Ptolemy XII from 52 to 51 B.C, Cleopatra ascended the throne together with her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII; later, after the Alexandrian civil war ( 48 - 47 B/C ), with the other brother, Ptolemy XIV, until 44 B.C and finally with the eldest son, Ptolemy XV Caesar; therefore she never reigned nominally alone, as a woman, but in reality, it was always she who ruled over her kingdom. The figure of Cleopatra has been since ancient times at the center of more or less imaginative tales and historical reconstructions, which led her to survive in the common imagination until now.

Ptolemy XII died of illness in the spring of 51 B.C and Cleopatra succeeded her father together with her ten-year-old brother Ptolemy XIII, who was supposed to marry her according to the tradition that the Ptolemaic dynasty had started with Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II, taking up the tradition of the ancient pharaohs. However, this union did not take place then and perhaps not later. Cleopatra immediately assumed the title of Philopátor, "father's lover") in honor of the deceased parent. However, it seems that at first Cleopatra had made sure not to circulate the news of the death of her father, probably to legitimize her power.

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