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Cleopatra VII | Cleopatra Philopator

  • 05 16, 2023

Cleopatra Philopator

Cleopatra VII is probably among the most famous characters of ancient Egypt and of all history, she was the last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic era, which began with Ptolemy I, to reign over the Kingdom of Egypt and also the last of the whole Hellenistic period, which began with Alexander the Great and whose end corresponds precisely with his death.

A strong and independent woman, she attempted a communicative policy, despite the continued growth of the authority of the Roman Republic in the Mediterranean Sea; in fact, she managed to relate effectively to this great power of her time due to the personal relationship he established with two important Roman generals, Julius Caesar and Marco Anthony, and had a central role in the last republican civil war, which led to the birth of the Roman Empire at the hands of Octavian Augustus.

After a brief co-regency with her father, Ptolemy XII from 52 to 51 B.C, Cleopatra ascended the throne together with her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII; later, after the Alexandrian civil war ( 48 - 47 B/C ), with the other brother, Ptolemy XIV, until 44 B.C and finally with the eldest son, Ptolemy XV Caesar; therefore she never reigned nominally alone, as a woman, but in reality, it was always she who ruled over her kingdom. The figure of Cleopatra has been since ancient times at the center of more or less imaginative tales and historical reconstructions, which led her to survive in the common imagination until now.

Ptolemy XII died of illness in the spring of 51 B.C. and Cleopatra succeeded her father together with her ten-year-old brother Ptolemy XIII, who was supposed to marry her according to the tradition that the Ptolemaic dynasty had started with Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II, taking up the tradition of the ancient pharaohs. However, this union did not take place then and perhaps not later. Cleopatra immediately assumed the title of Philopátor, "father's lover") in honor of the deceased parent. However, it seems that at first, Cleopatra had made sure not to circulate the news of the death of her father, probably to legitimize her power. Egypt is still a great tourist destination because its history is at the origin of what the world is today.

Cleopatra's four sons managed to live in peace after the death of their mother. The eldest son theoretically became the sole king of Egypt. But Ibn Caesar represented a danger to the Romans. While fleeing Egypt, he was captured and sentenced to death and the other sons were taken to Rome.

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Cleopatra VII, often referred to simply as Cleopatra, was the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt, ruling from 51 BC to 30 BC. She is one of the most famous and iconic figures in history due to her involvement with some of the most powerful leaders of her time and her role in the decline of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. Here is an overview of Cleopatra VII and her historical significance:

   Ptolemaic Dynasty: Cleopatra belonged to the Ptolemaic dynasty, a Greek royal family that ruled Egypt after the conquest of Alexander the Great. Her reign marked the last chapter of the Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.

   Cultural Background: Despite being of Greek descent, Cleopatra embraced Egyptian culture and identified with the Egyptian people. She learned to speak the Egyptian language and associated herself with the Egyptian goddess Isis.

   Relationships with Roman Leaders: Cleopatra is perhaps most famous for her romantic relationships with two prominent Roman leaders, Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Her affair with Julius Caesar began in 48 BC, and she later bore him a son named Caesarion.

   Death of Julius Caesar: After Julius Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Cleopatra aligned herself with Mark Antony, one of Caesar's allies, in the power struggles that followed. She formed a political and romantic alliance with Antony and had three children with him.

   Conflict with Octavian (Augustus): Cleopatra's relationship with Mark Antony led to a conflict with Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar. In 31 BC, the forces of Octavian defeated the combined forces of Cleopatra and Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium. Following this defeat, Cleopatra and Mark Antony committed suicide in 30 BC.

   End of Ptolemaic Rule: Cleopatra's death marked the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty and the beginning of Egypt's incorporation into the Roman Empire. Egypt became a Roman province, and Cleopatra's children were taken to Rome.

   Symbol of Beauty and Intrigue: Cleopatra's allure, intelligence, and charisma have made her a symbol of beauty and intrigue throughout history. Her life and relationships have been the subject of countless works of literature, art, and film.

   Historical Legacy: Cleopatra's reign is significant as it marked the end of Egypt's independence and the beginning of its integration into the Roman Empire. Her story has captured the imagination of people for centuries and remains a subject of fascination and study.


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