The largest city in Sinai is Arish, the capital of North Sinai. Other larger settlements include Sharm el-Sheikh and El-Tor, on the southern coast. The interior of Sinai is arid (effectively a desert), mountainous and sparsely populated, the largest settlements being St. Catherine and Nekhel.
Sinai Peninsula (Shibh Jazirat Sina')
The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai, also called Turquoise Land, is a triangular desert peninsula that attracts many kinds of tourists to visit during their Egypt tours. Sinai region It is located in the northeastern part of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and it is the only part of Egypt that follows Asia geographically, with an area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people, representing 6% of Egypt's total area is bounded to the north by the Mediterranean Sea and to the west by the Gulf of Suez. Administratively, Turquoise Land is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez Canal.
There is a clear ridge running along the southern edge of the Sinai in a large horseshoe curve. It is estimated that the Sinai desert receives more than 1.6 million acres (2 billion cubic meters) of water annually from local rain. About a quarter of this water flows on the surface as a bold flow, and a similar amount seeps into underground water tanks, providing excellent opportunities to conserve water. crossing into African Egypt: Port Said Governorate in the north, Ismailia Governorate in the center, and Suez Governorate on the southern end of the Suez Canal.
Sinai has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The earliest written information about it dates back to 3000 B.C during the early dynastic period of the 1st dynasty and the 2nd dynasty of Egypt history, but it seems that the name Sinai was known early on and may have been derived from the original name for one of the oldest religious sects in the Middle East, the name of the moon. Its unique location, which overlooks the current lands (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine), works on cultural rapprochement, and it has also worked on many disputes between Egypt and different countries, as the road has served the northern coast of Sinai as the main trade route between Egypt and Palestine for centuries.
During the first Christian period, Sinai, Egypt became home to a large number of hermits and ascetics, especially in the mountains of the southern region. In the year 530 A.D, Byzantine Emperor Justinian I began building the Monastery of Saint Catherine on the slopes of Mount Sinai. Since this provided a center for Christian communities in the region, the monastery served as a pilgrimage site in the Middle Ages. Then the situation in Sinai deteriorated, and travel there became difficult after Egypt gained independence from direct Turkish rule in the early nineteenth century. Al-Arish was also the scene of fighting between the Turks and the British during World War I, and at the end of the war, Sinai was handed over to Egypt.
Israel attacked and occupied Sinai (known in Egypt as Triple Aggression because of the simultaneous attack by the United Kingdom, France, and Israel) in 1956, but on 6 October 1973 the Egyptian forces succeeded in defeating Israel and the northeastern part of the peninsula remained the scene of bitter fighting in 1956 1967 and 1973. but after the peace agreement was reached between Egypt and Israel in late 1970, the Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt. As a result of the 1979 peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula except for the controversial Taba region, which was reinstalled after a jury ruling in 1989.
Sinai has become a tourist destination because of its natural location, rich coral reefs, and rich history. Mount Sinai is one of the most important religious sites in Egypt. and has a population (January 2013) of 597,000. Three more governates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez (el-Sewais) is on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia (el-Isma'ileyyah) in the center, and Port Said in the north.
The largest city of Sinai is Arish, the capital of North Sinai, with around 160,000 residents. Other larger settlements include Sharm el-Sheikh and El-Tor, on the southern coast. Inland Sinai is arid (effectively a desert), mountainous and sparsely populated, the largest settlements being Saint Catherine and Nikhil.