Modern Egyptian history is marked by a series of significant events and developments that have shaped the country's political, social, and economic landscape. Here are some of the major events in modern Egyptian history:
British Occupation (1882–1952): Egypt was under British influence and occupation during this period, which began with the British invasion in 1882. Although Egypt nominally remained a part of the Ottoman Empire, it was effectively under British control.
1922 Independence: Egypt gained nominal independence from British control in 1922, becoming a constitutional monarchy with King Fuad I as its ruler. However, British influence continued to be significant.
1952 Revolution: The Egyptian Revolution of 1952, led by the Free Officers Movement, resulted in the overthrow of King Farouk I and the establishment of a republic. General Muhammad Naguib and later Gamal Abdel Nasser played prominent roles in the revolution.
Suez Crisis (1956): Egypt's nationalization of the Suez Canal led to the Suez Crisis of 1956. The crisis involved military intervention by France, the United Kingdom, and Israel but ultimately ended with the withdrawal of foreign forces from the canal zone.
Nasser Era (1956–1971): Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the leaders of the 1952 revolution, served as Egypt's president and played a central role in shaping the country's modern political identity. His policies included land reforms, the nationalization of key industries, and the promotion of pan-Arabism.
1967 Six-Day War: Egypt's participation in the Six-Day War with Israel in 1967 resulted in significant territorial losses for Egypt, including the Sinai Peninsula.
Sadat and Peace with Israel (1970s): Anwar Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after Nasser's death in 1970. In a historic move, Sadat pursued peace negotiations with Israel, leading to the 1978 Camp David Accords and the 1979 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty.
Assassination of Anwar Sadat (1981): President Anwar Sadat was assassinated during a military parade in Cairo by Islamist extremists. Hosni Mubarak, who was vice president at the time, became president and remained in power for nearly three decades.
Arab Spring (2011): Egypt was one of the countries deeply affected by the Arab Spring uprisings. Mass protests in Cairo's Tahrir Square led to the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak in February 2011.
Political Transitions (2011–2020): Following the Arab Spring, Egypt went through a series of political transitions, including the election of Mohamed Morsi as the country's first democratically elected president in 2012 and his subsequent removal from power in 2013.
Current Era: Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, a former military general, assumed the presidency in 2014 and has remained in office. His tenure has seen significant political consolidation and efforts to stabilize the country.