The history of Pharaonic Egypt is divided into great periods of stability corresponding to the 30 dynasties that took turns in the government of the country from 3100 B.C to 332 B.C. We will talk about the old kingdom in detail with Cairo Top Tours!
The old kingdom of Egypt, or the ancient Empire, is the first major period in the history of ancient Egypt, with a strong and stable political, religious, and cultural system following the unification of all of Egypt in the archaic period, but before we talk about the old kingdom of Egypt history, we have to get back to the Protodynastic period:
It includes the first two dynasties and goes from 3100 to 2650 B.C. The first dynasty begins with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by the hand of King Menes.
The Old Kingdom, which goes from 2635 to 2155 B.C and is also known as the "pyramids period", begins with the Third Dynasty and ends with the 5th dynasty.
Between the 3rd dynasty and 4th dynasty the Old Kingdom reached its peak: in the absence of wars, everyone worked to satisfy the Pharaoh's court wishes.
The necropolis of Memphis and Saqqara and, subsequently, the three great Giza Pyramids (Cheope, Chephren, and Mycerinus) date back to this period. The Step Pyramid of King Djoser in Saqqara was also built by the genius architect Imhotep. and the pyramids of King Snefru in Dahshur (the Red Pyramid and the Bent Pyramid) are great examples of the grandeur of this period.
During the 6th dynasty, the power of the pharaohs weakened and the unity of the country also began to show signs of giving way. For over a hundred years, until the 10th dynasty, numerous pharaohs were unable to bring Egypt back to its original splendor. During the 9th dynasty and 10th dynasties, the capital of the country was Heracleopolis.
The 3rd dynasty kings: 2649–2575 B.C.
The 4th dynasty kings: 2575–2465 B.C.
The 5th dynasty kings: 2465–2323 B.C.
The 6th dynasty kings: 2323–2150 B.C.