The Citadel is established in 1176 by the Muslim king Saladin, who had the mighty walls and towers built with stone blocks probably were taken from the Pyramids of Giza, the fortress was the seat of power for 700 years. The heads of state of Egypt moved away from the medieval quarters around 1875, choosing the newly-built Abdeen Palace as their home, but the citadel retained its military role until the 1970s. Learn more with Cairo Top Tours
The Citadel Of Saladin is the iconic picture of Islamic Cairo that was built by Salah El-Din El Ayouby, at the end of the 12th century, He was a famous leader, as well as the founder of the Ayyubid Dynasty. The citadel is an indispensable part of all Cairo Day Tours and especially the Islamic Cairo tour when you travel to Egypt and also of the must things to do in Cairo and you will have the opportunity to experience those when booking one of our Cairo Stopover Tours.
Saladin was starting to build the Citadel but he passed away before it was finished so his son who completed the Citadel, and his son was the first one ruled Egypt from the citadel until Mohmed Ali the19 century
It has beheld enormous historical events throughout Egyptian history and was for many centuries the seat of the king and his government in Egypt. The Ayyubids, the Mamluks, and some Ottomans had a turn ruling over Egypt from the citadel.
Salah El-Din Al-Ayoubi Castle is considered one of the most luxurious military castles constructed in the Middle Ages, and it is considered one of the most important landmarks of Islamic Cairo, located in the "Castle" neighborhood, on one of the hills separated from Mount Mokattam, on the outskirts of Cairo, the unique location that made it a barrier. Consistently high between the cities of Cairo and Fustat, so it was possible to communicate between the castle and the city in the event of any siege.
Saladin decided that Cairo should have a fortified citadel to guard the city against unexpected future foreign attacks, Especially during the threat of the crusaders, who were carrying military campaigns towards the Middle East during this time. He found many revelations in the Lebanese and Syrian citadels due to how fortified and protective they were, recognizing the importance of having a massive citadel to protect Cairo, he sent all his resources to create the military structure.
Muhammed Ali mosque:
When Muhammed Ali came to power, he was determined to remove all traces of the influence of the Mamluks, who controlled Egypt for six consecutive centuries and demolished their palaces within the fortress. Muhammed Ali also built one of Cairo’s most famous landmarks.
The astounding Mosque of Mohamed Ali or the Alabaster Mosque was built in the memory of a deceased son, towers over the rest of the complex. furthermore to this huge mosque, the Citadel as well includes, full of uniforms and weapons from Egypt's long history, the National Military Museum, Police Museum, and several more museums allowed to the palace of Muhammed Ali.
The castle has four gates, the old door was known as the door of Mokattam, because it is adjacent to the Mokattam tower, which dates back to the Ottoman era, and this door was also known as the door of the mountain to supervise the door of Mokattam mountain. From the periods, it was a rectangular opening in a very thick wall towards the south of the Mokattam tower, and on this door was a memorial plaque bearing the foundational text in the Turkish language in the name Yakon Pasha and the date of construction of the door and the palace dates back to 1785 AD.
In 1827, Muhammad Ali Pasha began building the new door to be used in place of the inserted door, which was the main door of the castle and was created by Nasser Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi in 1183. Wheels, instead he built a new door and paved a sloping path for it to make it easier to get to and descend from the castle. This road is known today as the New Gate Street or the quarry railway.
As for the middle section, a mention came in one of the books of the French orientalist, "Paul Casanova" in 1894, in which he said that this section would be called "The Wastani", because he mediates the two major religions with the Royal Monsters, the Qaitbay, and Diwan al-Ghuri, and some researchers mentioned that he was known as the Wastani It separates the vestibule of the public naval citadel from the courtyards in which the Al-Nasir Muhammad Ibn Qalawun Mosque is located, and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha.
One of the important military installations that completed the role of the citadel in the Middle Ages, the wall that Salah Al-Din built around Cairo to defend against any external aggression, is the wall that was recently discovered. After Salah al-Din (1171 - 1193 AD) ruled Egypt, he cared for the construction of the area Outside Fatimid Cairo between Bab Zuweila and the Mosque of Ahmed Ibn Tulun, it was divided into several lines, including the Red Path, which is still known by this name to this day. This area is topped by the Mosque of Al-Saleh Tala'i ibn Razik, which is considered the last vestige of the Fatimid era in Egypt.
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