King Userkaf, whose name means "the strength is in his soul" is one of the first kings of the V Dynasty, He built his pyramid in Saqqara, in addition to a temple dedicated to the sun god Ra in the area of Abu Sir.
During his reign, the influence of the priesthood of Heliopolis and the solar cult of Amun had their main center in that city. Proof of this was the erection of the first solar temple, in Abu Ghurab, a structure that will become usual throughout the 5th dynasty; of the temple, known as the Court of the offerings of Ra, only a few traces remain: however, one of his titles in a palette was found, among the masterpieces of the art of the time.
Userkaf's reign might have witnessed a recrudescence of trade between Egypt and its Mediterranean neighbor's thanks to a series of marine expeditions, which are represented in his mortuary temple. His mortuary temple was more complex than the common pattern and richly decorated, and with a colossal statue of the king. It is unusual in having its mortuary temple located to the south, not facing the River Nile.
He built a pyramid very close to the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara. His pyramid is called (El Haram el Mekharbesh)or (the Ruined Pyramid). His Pyramid appears as a block of rubble. Today we can see its basalt door opened. Userkaf wanted to be close to Djoser's step pyramid and this location is probably for political and dynastic reasons, that's why he erected his Pyramid far from the necropolis of his ancestors at Abu Sir.
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