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King Sahure

  • 05 16, 2023

King Sahure

The Fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt was ruled by Sahure, its second pharaoh, and Nebkhau, also known as Horus, who ruled between 2487 and 2475 AD.

(About 2500 B.C.) Pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the fifth dynasty (Heliopolis). He built a merchant fleet with which his sailors reached the coast of Phenicia and, it seems, the land of Punt (western Somalia). He organized various mining expeditions in Sinai.

The commercial expansion culminated with Sahure, pharaoh of the 5th dynasty, who managed to reach the coasts of Phenicia and the land of Punt (Somalia) by sea and established contacts with Crete.

Sahure was the second king of the Fifth Dynasty. He is represented celebrating the success of this venture in relief from his mortuary temple which shows him offering a myrrh tree in the garden of his palace named "Sahure's splendor rises to heaven". This relief is the only one in Egyptian art depicting king gardening. Sahure sent many expeditions to the turquoise and copper mines in Sinai.

The valley temple, causeway, and mortuary temple of his pyramid complex were once decorated by over 10,000 m2 of elegant reliefs, representing the highest form reached by this art during the Old Kingdom period. 

Sahura (meaning "He who is close to Ra") was one of the most important Egyptian pharaohs in history, so he was a symbol of power like the other pharaohs. 

At the end of this period, the priests of Egypt increased their power further by producing magical spells that would help the pharaoh during his journey through the Underworld. These spells were inscribed on the walls of the pyramids. They became known as the Pyramid Texts and the majority of the text related to solar and celestial matters. The Pyramid texts admired both the sun god Amun Ra and also Osiris.


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King Sahure, also known as Sahura, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who ruled during the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, approximately from 2487 to 2475 BC. He is historically important for several reasons:

Pyramid Complex: King Sahure is known for his pyramid complex, located at Abusir, which is often referred to as the "Pyramid of Sahure." This pyramid complex is renowned for its architectural and artistic innovations. The complex included the pyramid itself, a mortuary temple, a causeway, and a valley temple, following the standard design of Old Kingdom pyramid complexes.

Innovative Pyramid Design: The Pyramid of Sahure featured significant architectural innovations, including a raised causeway that allowed for the construction of a large underground gallery beneath it. This gallery was used for the burial of the king's relatives, a unique feature of pyramid construction.

Artistic Achievements: Sahure's reign is noted for its artistic achievements, particularly the exquisite reliefs and inscriptions found in his pyramid complex. These reliefs depicted scenes of daily life, religious rituals, and offerings to deities. They provide valuable insights into the art and culture of the Fifth Dynasty.

Sun Temples: King Sahure continued the tradition of building sun temples that was initiated by his predecessor, Userkaf. The sun temples, dedicated to the sun god Ra, served both religious and administrative functions.

Economic Prosperity: Sahure's reign is associated with a period of economic prosperity and political stability. This allowed for the sponsorship of monumental construction projects, including his pyramid complex.

Trade and Foreign Relations: King Sahure is believed to have maintained trade relations with neighboring regions, including the Sinai Peninsula and Nubia. This contributed to Egypt's access to valuable resources and materials.

Historical Records: Hieroglyphic inscriptions from Sahure's reign provide historical records of his achievements and activities. These inscriptions offer valuable information about the administration, religious practices, and cultural life of the Fifth Dynasty.

Continuity of Dynasty: Sahure was the second Pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty, following his father Userkaf. His rule represents the continuity and stability of the dynasty, which was characterized by a strong centralization of power.


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